The graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) is potent against chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia (CP-CML), but blast crisis CML (BC-CML) and acute myeloid leukemias (AML) are GVL resistant. To understand GVL resistance, we studied GVL against mouse models of CP-CML, BC-CML, and AML generated by the transduction of mouse BM with fusion cDNAs derived from human leukemias. Prior work has shown that CD4+ T cell–mediated GVL against CP-CML and BC-CML required intact leukemia MHCII; however, stem cells from both leukemias were MHCII negative. Here, we show that CP-CML, BC-CML, and AML stem cells upregulate MHCII in alloSCT recipients. Using gene-deficient leukemias, we determined that BC-CML and AML MHC upregulation required IFN-γ stimulation, whereas CP-CML MHC upregulation was independent of both the IFN-γ receptor (IFN-γR) and the IFN-γ/γ receptor IFNAR1. Importantly, IFN-γR–deficient BC-CML and AML were completely resistant to CD4- and CD8-mediated GVL, whereas IFN-γR/IFNAR1 double-deficient CP-CML was fully GVL sensitive. Mouse AML and BC-CML stem cells were MHCI+ without IFN-γ stimulation, suggesting that IFN-γ sensitizes these leukemias to T cell killing by mechanisms other than MHC upregulation. Our studies identify the requirement of IFN-γ stimulation as a mechanism for BC-CML and AML GVL resistance, whereas independence from IFN-γ renders CP-CML more GVL sensitive, even with a lower-level alloimmune response.
Catherine Matte-Martone, Jinling Liu, Meng Zhou, Maria Chikina, Douglas R. Green, John T. Harty, Warren D. Shlomchik
Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) are at high risk for reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (VZV) and development of herpes zoster (HZ). Here, we found that macrophages from patients with CAD actively suppress T cell activation and expansion, leading to defective VZV-specific T cell immunity. Monocyte-derived and plaque-infiltrating macrophages from patients with CAD spontaneously expressed high surface density of the immunoinhibitory ligand programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), thereby providing negative signals to programmed death-1+ (PD-1+) T cells. We determined that aberrant PD-L1 expression in patient-derived macrophages was metabolically controlled. Oversupply of the glycolytic intermediate pyruvate in mitochondria from CAD macrophages promoted expression of PD-L1 via induction of the bone morphogenetic protein 4/phosphorylated SMAD1/5/IFN regulatory factor 1 (BMP4/p-SMAD1/5/IRF1) signaling pathway. Thus, CAD macrophages respond to nutrient excess by activating the immunoinhibitory PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint, leading to impaired T cell immunity. This finding indicates that metabolite-based immunotherapy may be a potential strategy for restoring adaptive immunity in CAD.
Ryu Watanabe, Tsuyoshi Shirai, Hong Namkoong, Hui Zhang, Gerald J. Berry, Barbara B. Wallis, Benedikt Schaefgen, David G. Harrison, Jennifer A. Tremmel, John C. Giacomini, Jörg J. Goronzy, Cornelia M. Weyand
Design of efficacious Treg-based therapies and establishment of clinical tolerance in autoimmune diseases have proven to be challenging. The clinical implementation of Treg immunotherapy has been hampered by various impediments related to the stability and isolation procedures of Tregs as well as the specific in vivo targets of Treg modalities. Herein, we have demonstrated that Foxp3+ Tregs potently suppress autoimmune responses in vivo through inhibition of the autophagic machinery in DCs in a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte–associated protein 4–dependent (CTLA4-dependent) manner. Autophagy-deficient DCs exhibited reduced immunogenic potential and failed to prime autoantigen-specific CD4+ T cells to mediate autoimmunity. Mechanistically, CTLA4 binding promoted activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis and FoxO1 nuclear exclusion in DCs, leading to decreased transcription of the autophagy component microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3β (Lc3b). Human DCs treated with CTLA4-Ig, a fusion protein composed of the Fc region of IgG1 and the extracellular domain of CTLA4 (also known as abatacept, marketed as Orencia), demonstrated reduced levels of autophagosome formation, while DCs from CTLA4-Ig–treated rheumatoid arthritis patients displayed diminished LC3B transcripts. Collectively, our data identify the canonical autophagy pathway in DCs as a molecular target of Foxp3+ Treg–mediated suppression that leads to amelioration of autoimmune responses. These findings may pave the way for the development of therapeutic protocols that exploit Tregs for the treatment of autoimmunity as well as diseases in which disturbed tolerance is a common denominator.
Themis Alissafi, Aggelos Banos, Louis Boon, Tim Sparwasser, Alessandra Ghigo, Kajsa Wing, Dimitrios Vassilopoulos, Dimitrios Boumpas, Triantafyllos Chavakis, Ken Cadwell, Panayotis Verginis
NK cells are highly efficient at preventing cancer metastasis but are infrequently found in the core of primary tumors. Here, have we demonstrated that freshly isolated mouse and human NK cells express low levels of the endo-β-D-glucuronidase heparanase that increase upon NK cell activation. Heparanase deficiency did not affect development, differentiation, or tissue localization of NK cells under steady-state conditions. However, mice lacking heparanase specifically in NK cells (
Eva M. Putz, Alyce J. Mayfosh, Kevin Kos, Deborah S. Barkauskas, Kyohei Nakamura, Liam Town, Katharine J. Goodall, Dean Y. Yee, Ivan K.H. Poon, Nikola Baschuk, Fernando Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Mark D. Hulett, Mark J. Smyth
Protective responses against pathogens require a rapid mobilization of resting neutrophils and the timely removal of activated ones. Neutrophils are exceptionally short-lived leukocytes, yet it remains unclear whether the lifespan of pathogen-engaged neutrophils is regulated differently from that in the circulating steady-state pool. Here, we have found that under homeostatic conditions, the mRNA-destabilizing protein tristetraprolin (TTP) regulates apoptosis and the numbers of activated infiltrating murine neutrophils but not neutrophil cellularity. Activated TTP-deficient neutrophils exhibited decreased apoptosis and enhanced accumulation at the infection site. In the context of myeloid-specific deletion of
Florian Ebner, Vitaly Sedlyarov, Saren Tasciyan, Masa Ivin, Franz Kratochvill, Nina Gratz, Lukas Kenner, Andreas Villunger, Michael Sixt, Pavel Kovarik
Ajitha Thanabalasuriar, Bas G.J. Surewaard, Michelle E. Willson, Arpan S. Neupane, Charles K. Stover, Paul Warrener, George Wilson, Ashley E. Keller, Bret R. Sellman, Antonio DiGiandomenico, Paul Kubes
A large proportion of human T cells are autoreactive to group 1 CD1 proteins, which include CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c. However, the physiological role of the CD1 proteins remains poorly defined. Here, we have generated a double-transgenic mouse model that expresses human CD1b and CD1c molecules (hCD1Tg) as well as a CD1b-autoreactive TCR (HJ1Tg) in the ApoE-deficient background (hCD1Tg HJ1Tg
Sreya Bagchi, Ying He, Hong Zhang, Liang Cao, Ildiko Van Rhijn, D. Branch Moody, Johann E. Gudjonsson, Chyung-Ru Wang
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by dysregulation in both cytokines and responses to intestinal microbes, and proper regulation of pattern recognition receptor (PRR) signaling is critical for intestinal immune homeostasis. Altered functions for the IBD risk locus containing rs7554511, which encompasses the
Jie Yan, Matija Hedl, Clara Abraham
Tissue-resident immune cells play a key role in local and systemic immune responses. The liver, in particular, hosts a large number of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, which are involved in diverse immune responses. However, the mechanisms that regulate survival and homeostasis of liver iNKT cells are poorly defined. Here we have found that liver iNKT cells constitutively express the costimulatory TNF superfamily receptor OX40 and that OX40 stimulation results in massive pyroptotic death of iNKT cells, characterized by the release of potent proinflammatory cytokines that induce liver injury. This OX40/NKT pyroptosis pathway also plays a key role in concanavalin A–induced murine hepatitis. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that liver iNKT cells express high levels of caspase 1 and that OX40 stimulation activates caspase 1 via TNF receptor–associated factor 6–mediated recruitment of the paracaspase MALT1. We also found that activation of caspase 1 in iNKT cells results in processing of pro–IL-1β to mature IL-1β as well as cleavage of the pyroptotic protein gasdermin D, which generates a membrane pore–forming fragment to produce pyroptotic cell death. Thus, our study has identified OX40 as a death receptor for iNKT cells and uncovered a molecular mechanism of pyroptotic cell death. These findings may have important clinical implications in the development of OX40-directed therapies.
Peixiang Lan, Yihui Fan, Yue Zhao, Xiaohua Lou, Howard P. Monsour, Xiaolong Zhang, Yongwon Choi, Yaling Dou, Naoto Ishii, Rafik M. Ghobrial, Xiang Xiao, Xian Chang Li
Proinflammatory cytokine overproduction and excessive cell death, coupled with impaired clearance of apoptotic cells, have been implicated as causes of failure to resolve gut inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases. Here we have found that dendritic cells expressing the apoptotic cell–recognizing receptor CD300f play a crucial role in regulating gut inflammatory responses in a murine model of colonic inflammation. CD300f-deficient mice failed to resolve dextran sulfate sodium–induced colonic inflammation as a result of defects in dendritic cell function that were associated with abnormal accumulation of apoptotic cells in the gut. CD300f-deficient dendritic cells displayed hyperactive phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, which stimulated excessive TNF-α secretion predominantly from dendritic cells. This, in turn, induced secondary IFN-γ overproduction by colonic T cells, leading to prolonged gut inflammation. Our data highlight a previously unappreciated role for dendritic cells in controlling gut homeostasis and show that CD300f-dependent regulation of apoptotic cell uptake is essential for suppressing overactive dendritic cell–mediated inflammatory responses, thereby controlling the development of chronic gut inflammation.
Ha-Na Lee, Linjie Tian, Nicolas Bouladoux, Jacquice Davis, Mariam Quinones, Yasmine Belkaid, John E. Coligan, Konrad Krzewski