The transcription factor NF-κB is an important regulator of homeostatic growth and inflammation. Although gene-targeting studies have revealed important roles for NF-κB, they have been complicated by component redundancy and lethal phenotypes. To examine the role of NF-κB in endothelial tissues, Tie2 promoter/enhancer–IκBαS32A/S36A transgenic mice were generated. These mice grew normally but exhibited enhanced sensitivity to LPS-induced toxemia, notable for an increase in vascular permeability and apoptosis. Moreover, B16-BL6 tumors grew significantly more aggressively in transgenic mice, underscoring a new role for NF-κB in the homeostatic response to cancer. Tumor vasculature in transgenic mice was extensive and disorganized. This correlated with a marked loss in tight junction formation and suggests that NF-κB plays an important role in the maintenance of vascular integrity and response to stress.
Tatiana Kisseleva, Li Song, Marina Vorontchikhina, Nikki Feirt, Jan Kitajewski, Christian Schindler
Recovery of endothelial integrity after vascular injury is vital for endothelial barrier function and vascular homeostasis. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of endothelial barrier repair following injury. To investigate the functional role of forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) in the mechanism of endothelial repair, we generated endothelial cell–restricted FoxM1-deficient mice (FoxM1 CKO mice). These mutant mice were viable and exhibited no overt phenotype. However, in response to the inflammatory mediator LPS, FoxM1 CKO mice displayed significantly protracted increase in lung vascular permeability and markedly increased mortality. Following LPS-induced vascular injury, FoxM1 CKO lungs demonstrated impaired cell proliferation in association with sustained expression of p27Kip1 and decreased expression of cyclin B1 and Cdc25C. Endothelial cells isolated from FoxM1 CKO lungs failed to proliferate, and siRNA-mediated suppression of FoxM1 expression in human endothelial cells resulted in defective cell cycle progression. Deletion of FoxM1 in endothelial cells induced decreased expression of cyclins, Cdc2, and Cdc25C, increased p27Kip1 expression, and decreased Cdk activities. Thus, FoxM1 plays a critical role in the mechanism of the restoration of endothelial barrier function following vascular injury. These data suggest that impairment in FoxM1 activation may be an important determinant of the persistent vascular barrier leakiness and edema formation associated with inflammatory diseases.
You-Yang Zhao, Xiao-Pei Gao, Yidan D. Zhao, Muhammad K. Mirza, Randall S. Frey, Vladimir V. Kalinichenko, I-Ching Wang, Robert H. Costa, Asrar B. Malik
Carcinoembryonic antigen–related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1), a cellular adhesion molecule of the Ig superfamily, is associated with early stages of angiogenesis. In vitro, CEACAM1 regulates proliferation, migration, and differentiation of murine endothelial cells. To prove that CEACAM1 is functionally involved in the regulation of vascular remodeling in vivo, we analyzed 2 different genetic models: in Ceacam1–/– mice, the Ceacam1 gene was deleted systemically, and in CEACAM1endo+ mice, CEACAM1 was overexpressed under the control of the endothelial cell–specific promoter of the Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase. In Matrigel plug assays, Ceacam1–/– mice failed to establish new capillaries whereas in CEACAM1endo+ mice the implants were vascularized extensively. After induction of hind limb ischemia by femoral artery ligation, Ceacam1–/– mice showed significantly reduced growth of arterioles and collateral blood flow compared with their WT littermates. In agreement with a causal role of CEACAM1 in vascular remodeling, CEACAM1endo+ mice exhibited an increase in revascularization and collateral blood flow after arterial occlusion. Our findings indicate that CEACAM1 expression is important for the establishment of newly formed vessels in vivo. Hence CEACAM1 could be a future target for therapeutic manipulation of angiogenesis in disease.
Andrea Kristina Horst, Wulf D. Ito, Joachim Dabelstein, Udo Schumacher, Heike Sander, Claire Turbide, Jens Brümmer, Thomas Meinertz, Nicole Beauchemin, Christoph Wagener
In the vascular system, the receptor for the signaling molecule NO, guanylyl cyclase (GC), mediates smooth muscle relaxation and inhibition of platelet aggregation by increasing intracellular cyclic GMP (cGMP) concentration. The heterodimeric GC exists in 2 isoforms (α1-GC, α2-GC) with indistinguishable regulatory properties. Here, we used mice deficient in either α1- or α2-GC to dissect their biological functions. In platelets, α1-GC, the only isoform present, was responsible for NO-induced inhibition of aggregation. In aortic tissue, α1-GC, as the major isoform (94%), mediated vasodilation. Unexpectedly, α2-GC, representing only 6% of the total GC content in WT, also completely relaxed α1-deficient vessels albeit higher NO concentrations were needed. The functional impact of the low cGMP levels produced by α2-GC in vivo was underlined by pronounced blood pressure increases upon NO synthase inhibition. As a fractional amount of GC was sufficient to mediate vasorelaxation at higher NO concentrations, we conclude that the majority of NO-sensitive GC is not required for cGMP-forming activity but as NO receptor reserve to increase sensitivity toward the labile messenger NO in vivo.
Evanthia Mergia, Andreas Friebe, Oliver Dangel, Michael Russwurm, Doris Koesling
To determine whether endothelial Akt could affect vascular lesion formation, mutant mice with a constitutively active Akt transgene, which could be inducibly targeted to the vascular endothelium using the tet-off system (EC-Akt Tg mice), were generated. After withdrawal of doxycycline, EC-Akt Tg mice demonstrated increased endothelial-specific Akt activity and NO production. After blood flow cessation caused by carotid artery ligation, neointimal formation was attenuated in induced EC-Akt Tg mice compared with noninduced EC-Akt Tg mice and control littermates. To determine the role of eNOS in mediating these effects, mice were treated with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Neointimal formation was attenuated to a lesser extent in induced EC-Akt Tg mice treated with L-NAME, suggesting that some of the vascular protective effects were NO independent. Indeed, endothelial activation of Akt resulted in less EC apoptosis in ligated arteries. Immunostaining demonstrated decreased inflammatory and proliferative changes in induced EC-Akt Tg mice after vascular injury. These findings indicate that endothelial activation of Akt suppresses lesion formation via increased NO production, preservation of functional endothelial layer, and suppression of inflammatory and proliferative changes in the vascular wall. These results suggest that enhancing endothelial Akt activity alone could have therapeutic benefits after vascular injury.
Yasushi Mukai, Yoshiyuki Rikitake, Ichiro Shiojima, Sebastian Wolfrum, Minoru Satoh, Kyosuke Takeshita, Yukio Hiroi, Salvatore Salomone, Hyung-Hwan Kim, Laura E. Benjamin, Kenneth Walsh, James K. Liao
During intravascular hemolysis in human disease, vasomotor tone and organ perfusion may be impaired by the increased reactivity of cell-free plasma hemoglobin (Hb) with NO. We experimentally produced acute intravascular hemolysis in a canine model in order to test the hypothesis that low levels of decompartmentalized or cell-free plasma Hb will severely reduce NO bioavailability and produce vasomotor instability. Importantly, in this model the total intravascular Hb level is unchanged; only the compartmentalization of Hb within the erythrocyte membrane is disrupted. Using a full-factorial design, we demonstrate that free water–induced intravascular hemolysis produces dose-dependent systemic vasoconstriction and impairs renal function. We find that these physiologic changes are secondary to the stoichiometric oxidation of endogenous NO by cell-free plasma oxyhemoglobin. In this model, 80 ppm of inhaled NO gas oxidized 85–90% of plasma oxyhemoglobin to methemoglobin, thereby inhibiting endogenous NO scavenging by cell-free Hb. As a result, the vasoconstriction caused by acute hemolysis was attenuated and the responsiveness to systemically infused NO donors was restored. These observations confirm that the acute toxicity of intravascular hemolysis occurs secondarily to the accelerated dioxygenation reaction of plasma oxyhemoglobin with endothelium-derived NO to form bioinactive nitrate. These biochemical and physiological studies demonstrate a major role for the intact erythrocyte in NO homeostasis and provide mechanistic support for the existence of a human syndrome of hemolysis-associated NO dysregulation, which may contribute to the vasculopathy of hereditary, acquired, and iatrogenic hemolytic states.
Peter C. Minneci, Katherine J. Deans, Huang Zhi, Peter S.T. Yuen, Robert A. Star, Steven M. Banks, Alan N. Schechter, Charles Natanson, Mark T. Gladwin, Steven B. Solomon
We tested the hypothesis that induction of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) impairs vascular smooth muscle contractility after hypoxia. nNOS protein was increased in aorta, mesenteric arterioles, pulmonary arteries, brain, and diaphragm from rats exposed to 8% O2 for 48 hours and in human aortic SMCs after hypoxic incubation (1% O2). Ca2+-dependent NO synthase activity was increased in endothelium-denuded aortic segments from hypoxia-exposed rats. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester enhanced the contractile responses of endothelium-denuded aortic rings and mesenteric arterioles from hypoxia-exposed but not normoxic rats (P < 0.05). The hypoxia-inducible mRNA transcript expressed by human cells was found to contain a novel 5′-untranslated region, consistent with activation of transcription in the genomic region contiguous with exon 2. Translational efficiency of this transcript is markedly increased compared with previously described human nNOS mRNAs. Transgenic mice possessing a lacZ reporter construct under control of these genomic sequences demonstrated expression of the construct after exposure to hypoxia (8% O2, 48 hours) in the aorta, mesenteric arterioles, renal papilla, and brain. These results reveal a novel human nNOS promoter that confers the ability to rapidly upregulate nNOS expression in response to hypoxia with a functionally significant effect on vascular smooth muscle contraction.
Michael E. Ward, Mourad Toporsian, Jeremy A. Scott, Hwee Teoh, Vasanthi Govindaraju, Adrian Quan, Avraham D. Wener, Guilin Wang, Siân C. Bevan, Derek C. Newton, Philip A. Marsden
Progression of pulmonary hypertension is associated with increased proliferation and migration of pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells. PDGF is a potent mitogen and involved in this process. We now report that the PDGF receptor antagonist STI571 (imatinib) reversed advanced pulmonary vascular disease in 2 animal models of pulmonary hypertension. In rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension, therapy with daily administration of STI571 was started 28 days after induction of the disease. A 2-week treatment resulted in 100% survival, compared with only 50% in sham-treated rats. The changes in RV pressure, measured continuously by telemetry, and right heart hypertrophy were reversed to near-normal levels. STI571 prevented phosphorylation of the PDGF receptor and suppressed activation of downstream signaling pathways. Similar results were obtained in chronically hypoxic mice, which were treated with STI571 after full establishment of pulmonary hypertension. Moreover, expression of the PDGF receptor was found to be significantly increased in lung tissue from pulmonary arterial hypertension patients compared with healthy donor lung tissue. We conclude that STI571 reverses vascular remodeling and cor pulmonale in severe experimental pulmonary hypertension regardless of the initiating stimulus. This regimen offers a unique novel approach for antiremodeling therapy in progressed pulmonary hypertension.
Ralph Theo Schermuly, Eva Dony, Hossein Ardeschir Ghofrani, Soni Pullamsetti, Rajkumar Savai, Markus Roth, Akylbek Sydykov, Ying Ju Lai, Norbert Weissmann, Werner Seeger, Friedrich Grimminger
Raj Kishore, Gangjian Qin, Corinne Luedemann, Evelyn Bord, Allison Hanley, Marcy Silver, Mary Gavin, Young-sup Yoon, David Goukassain, Douglas W. Losordo
Ang II is a central mediator of vascular inflammation and remodeling. The transcription factor Ets-1 is rapidly induced in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells of the mouse thoracic aorta in response to systemic Ang II infusion. Arterial wall thickening, perivascular fibrosis, and cardiac hypertrophy are significantly diminished in Ets1–/– mice compared with control mice in response to Ang II. The induction of 2 known targets of Ets-1, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21CIP and plasminogen activator inhibitor–1 (PAI-1), by Ang II is markedly blunted in the aorta of Ets1–/– mice compared with wild-type controls. Expression of p21CIP in VSMCs leads to cellular hypertrophy, whereas expression of p21CIP in endothelial cells is associated with cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and endothelial dysfunction. PAI-1 promotes the development of perivascular fibrosis. We have identified monocyte chemoattractant protein–1 (MCP-1) as a novel target for Ets-1. Expression of MCP-1 is similarly reduced in Ets1–/– mice compared with control mice in response to Ang II, which results in significantly diminished recruitment of T cells and macrophages to the vessel wall. In summary, our results support a critical role for Ets-1 as a transcriptional mediator of vascular inflammation and remodeling in response to Ang II.
Yumei Zhan, Courtney Brown, Elizabeth Maynard, Aleksandra Anshelevich, Weihua Ni, I-Cheng Ho, Peter Oettgen